肠道菌群的抗病展望

Gut Microbes Lessen Mice Malarial Malaise

听写于:2016-3-8 | 正确率:89%

提示:红色:错误单词,绿色:补上正确单词,黄色:纠正大小写与标点

A malaria infection begins when the a mosquito injects the Plasmodium parasite into the blood. But getting sick is not a certain outcome. The vast majority of people really only develop either mild malaria or even a symptomatic asymptomatic infections. Nathan Schmidt, a cellular immunologist at the University of Louisville. It’s a very small subset of the hundreds of millions of cases that progress to sever severe malaria.

Now , some of the variation in owner’s illness severity is genetic, . Or whether the patient is partially immune. , thanks to past exposures. But Schmidt and his colleagues had have found another factor that could influence the disease. : the hosts host’s microbiome.

The first clue came during an experiment in lab mice. : because even though the mice were almost identical genetically. , mice that have had been bought from different venders vendors showed variability in their response to infection by the malaria parasite. Turns out, that the mice have had different microbiomes.

So the researchers did more tests . - they transplanted the gut bugs of both the resistant and the susceptible animals into other mice that had no gut bacteria. And again, mice that now had the resistant microbiomics, respell microbial mix were spared the worse worst of the a malaria infection . - possibly through some sort of booster effectunder on their immune system , thanks to the microbes. The study appears at in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

As for optimizing our microbimes. microbiomes? I think that we are we’re pretty far away from , you know , this having any kind of real therapeutic potential for humans. Yogurt alone, for example, didn’t much help the mice. But if and when we do find the right recipe for the anti-malaria anti-malarial microbiome, the researchers say, it could lessen the parasite’s effects, . And perhaps , save thousands of lives.

  • Words worth to be remembered:
    • asymptomatic adj. 无症状的
    • plasmodium 疟原虫【植】变形
    • microbiome 微生物菌羣
    • vendor n. 摊贩;卖主;供应商;自动售货机

譯文:

  • “()”中的是我認爲正確的翻譯
  • 黑體字是我認爲翻譯得好的部分

当一只蚊子把Plasmodium 寄生虫注入到血中, 你便感染了疟疾. 但是也不是感染了就一定会发病.大多数被感染的人只是轻微疟疾或者连感染的症状都没有. 这是Nathan Schmidt, Louisville大学的细胞免疫学家.成百上千的感染病例中只有一小部分会转为急性疟疾症状.

这些疾病严重程度上的变化是遗传因素造成的.或者说,是否病人是属于对此疾病部分免疫,还要感谢之前的感染.但是Schmidt和他的同事已经发现还有一个因素会影响到疾病的程度: 那就是宿主的微生物群.

在实验室的小鼠中进行的试验首先显示出证据: 即使小鼠几乎在遗传特征上是等同的,从不同的来源所购买到的小鼠在它们对感染性疟疾的反应也是不同的.结果显示,正是由于小鼠们有不同的微生物群.

因此研究人员们进行了更多的测试——他们将有抗性和易感性的动物中采集到的肠道细菌移植给没有任何肠道细菌的洁净小鼠。然后再次对它们进行疟疾感染实验,结果现在已经被移植了有抗性微生物混合物的小鼠们再次免于遭受疟疾的严重迫害——或许多亏了它们这些微生物通过某种促进效应,对它们的免疫系统有积极作用。该研究已发表在《美国国家科学研究进展》杂志上。

至于说要优化这些微生物群?我认为我们现在距离做到能够此类对人类有治疗效果的手段还很远。就拿酸奶举个例子吧,对小鼠来讲没有任何促进作用。但是如果真能做到的话,当我们真的找到调治抗疟疾的微生物群配方时,这些研究人员们表示,还真能够用于减弱寄生虫的致病作用。并且或许能拯救更多的生命呢。

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Chaochen Wang 王 超辰
Assistant Professor

All models are wrong, but some are useful.

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