枪支自杀与公共健康

Suicide Differences by Region Related to Gun Availability

听写于:2016-2-22 | 正确率:91%

提示:红色:错误单词,绿色:补上正确单词,黄色:纠正大小写与标点

One of the things we know for sure , in the United States , is that a gun in a the home increases the likelihood that someone in the home will die , in a violent death , - from gun accidents, from a women woman being murdered by a man or in an intimated intimate partner violent violence situation , and particularly , by suicide.

David Hemenway, he is . He’s the director of the Harvard Injury Control Research Center, he is . He’s also a professor of Health Policy and Management at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health. The gun violence discussion often seems to give short shift shrift to suicide. , even though more than 60% of the approximately 22000 32,000 annual U. S. firearms deaths are suicides. Hemenway spoke at January 6th 26th at the a Harvard School of Public Health forum on gun violence as a public health issue.

The evidence is overwhelming, from case control studies to and ecological studies. For example, why do we have very different suicide rates across cities, across states, across regions in the United States, . To explain the differences in suicide rates across states. , turns out it is it’s not well explained at all by differences in mental health, it is it’s not well explained at all by differences in numbers the number of psychiatrists, it is it’s not even explained by differences in suicide radiation ideation among the population or even suicide attempts. What really explains the difference in the United States across the populations is the number of guns. Because of it’s gun suicides suicide which is so different.

And someone who commits suicide with a gun very likely would not have either attempted or succeeded if the gun were not available. For example, a 2013 Swiss study , tracked men after the size of their army was cut in half, effectively when removing guns from half of that group, . The overall suicide rate went down, and the researcher researchers estimated that only 22% of all the men who would’ve would have killed themselves with a gun if it had been available wound up committing the act by other means. The presence of guns the gun just make makes it significantly easier to take their your own lives life impulsively.

The entire hour-long forum featuring Hemenway and other researchers discussing gun violence as a public health issue is archived on lineonline. Just google " Harvard public health forum” .

  • Words worth to be remembered:
    • ideation n. 观念构成

譯文:

  • “()”中的是我認爲正確的翻譯
  • 黑體字是我認爲翻譯得好的部分

有件事儿大家都很清楚,在美国,私人拥有枪支的合法增加了家庭成员因暴力死亡的可能性——原因可能是枪支走火,也可能是三角关系引发血案,特别还有可能是自杀。

这是David Hemenway,哈佛人身伤害控制研究中心的负责人。他也是哈佛公共健康T. H. Chan学院的一名健康政策与管理学教授。枪支暴力谈论通常因自杀而草草收场,即便在美国每年大约有32000起火拼死亡案件中有60%都是自杀行为。Hemenway在1月26日举行的哈夫公共健康学院的研讨会上指出枪支暴力犯罪属于公共健康问题。

来自于案例对照研究和生态研究得到的证据是非常有说服力的。比如,为什么不同城市,不同的州,以及美国境内不同区域的自杀率十分的不同?为了解释不同地区的自杀率之间的差异原因,研究结果显示这些原因根本不能用精神疾病的发病率不同来解释,根本不能用精神病医师的数量多少来解释,甚至也根本不能用人群中的自杀倾向或者自杀企图的比例上的差异来解释。真正在美国人口中出现的这种差异的普遍原因就是枪支的数量。因为是用枪支自杀的数量上有差异。

并且,如果没有枪,用枪支自杀的某人很可能本来就不用出现用枪自杀的动机以及后来用枪自杀成功的这种事儿。比如, 在2013年瑞士,有一项研究追踪调查了军火大小被减半后,就有效的把枪从作案凶器中的出现频率降低了一半。整个自杀率下降,而研究人员们估计,所有自杀的研究对象中,有22% 的人,如果可以选择枪这种工具,那么他们才会自杀,用其它工具他们就不进行自杀行为了。 枪支的出现只是使得你结束生命的冲动出现后更加容易的被满足。

含有Hemenway和其它研究人员关于枪支暴力犯罪属于公共健康问题的全部论坛内容已经可以在线收听。只需要用谷歌搜索“Harvard public health forum”选择相应内容即可。

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Chaochen Wang 王 超辰
Assistant Professor

All models are wrong, but some are useful.

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