# 意大利地震成因

Italy’s devastating earthquake

I mean, it is that unfolding. It’s very unfamiliar to me. But you think these are all connected somehow.

Well, first, earthquakes in Italy turn tend to occur more in groups or sequences than a lot of other places in the world. This is somewhat unique to Italy. It’s not a striking difference, but it’s a noticeable one. And it’s probably because the faults there are relatively relative young. , less than a 1 million years old. Compare that to the San Andreas', which is over 10 million years old. So these are little kind of broken shards of faults that haven’t really been organized organised by repeated earthquakes into a long continuous smooth fault. So, that means that if you jostle one, you turn tend to move the others around it. And no one fault is able to rupture for a very long distance and produce a very large earthquake. So we get these little groups or families of moderate size moderate-sized events.

But it’s interesting that you mentioned L’Aquila , that was several years ago. , there was some pre-rumbling that happenhappened, I’m not sure what was going on afterward and afterwards, then in August you have once, that’s a long separation. , and then a few weeks late later you’ve got another one and then another one. You know, the timing , as well as the distance between these events , seems curious to me. I am I’m not sure what to make of it.

Well, it’s interesting. Take a typical earthquake, say a magnitude 6six. It’s gonna going to produce aftershocks. Aftershocks have a unique property. : the longer you go by in time, the more spread out they are. But their magnitudes don’t get smaller with time.

• Words worth to be remembered:
• unfolding: v. 展开；开展，发展显露；显露
• fault: n. 故障；[地质] 断层；错误；缺点；毛病；（网球等）发球失误 vt. （通常用于疑问句或否定句）挑剔 vi. 弄错；产生断层
• San Andrias: 圣安德列斯断层（英语：San Andreas Fault，又译圣安地列斯断层、圣安德烈亚斯断层、圣安德鲁斯断层），是北美洲一处频繁活动的断层。
• shard: n. 瓷器的碎片;碎片;翅鞘;外壳
• jostle: n. 推撞，拥挤 v. 推挤；争夺，竞争
• rupture: n. 破裂；决裂；疝气 v. （使）破裂；发生气
• L’Aquila (earthquake): 2009年拉奎拉地震 ; 意大利拉奎拉地震
• rumbling: n. 隆隆声 v. rumble的现在分词；隆隆响
• I’m not sure what to make of it:
• (someone) didn’t know what to make of (something)
• This phrase means that a person didn’t understand something or didn’t know what it was.
• In the example above, the speaker didn’t know whether the guy was serious or joking, whether he really didn’t care about her or whether he was trying to hide his true feelings.
• Other feelings that you might have when you “don’t know what to make of” something are:
• You’re not sure whether something is good or bad.
• You can’t decide what something is.
• You don’t know why a person said something the way that they said it.

## 譯文

##### Chaochen Wang 王　超辰
###### Assistant Professor

All models are wrong, but some are useful.