遺傳物質的橫向傳遞

今日要祭奠BBC新聞聽寫在滬江外語學習之死。 幾周未見,今日登錄滬江準備聽聽久違的BBC。結果發現節目已經被下架: 然後我點擊其他訂閱的節目,結果一大半都“被下架”。細看過去全是外語新聞類,政治類的節目。現在連外語學習也已經進入了莫談國是的狀態了嗎? 可憐的孩子們今後還有什麼資源可以學習英語呢?

悲哀。

連馬里蘭的空氣新鮮不新鮮都已經被上升到乳滑不乳滑了。我等草民還是閉嘴爲上策。親愛的朋友們,你們今天都健身了嗎?一切都只是剛剛開始。

听写于:2017-5-30 11:34 用时:19:08 正确率:93% 错词:10个

提示:红色:错误单词,绿色:补上正确单词,黄色:纠正大小写与标点

You can thank your parents for your DNA. Because humans share genes through sexual reproduction, passing DNA from parent to child. It’s known as the vertical transfer of DNA. Now imagine if you could share just 1 one or 2 two bits of your DNA with an unrelated stranger, through a handshake, or other incidental contact . - and that stranger inserted your DNA into their genome. No sex, . No offspring either. That’s called the horizontal transfer of DNA. It’s obviously not how humans do it. But it’s a mainstay of single cell single-celled organisms like bacteria, which use the process to share antibiotic resistance genes, for example.

And now French scientists have found that horizontal DNA transfer could be a lot more common than we thought in multicellular organisms, too . - insects, in this case. Because by analyzing 195 insect genomes, they found more than 2,200 cases of this horizontal DNA transfer between unrelated species of flies and butterflies, beatles beetles and wasps.

That total quad druples quadruples the number of horizontal DNA transfers previously describes described in all plants animals and fungi. The study is in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

How exactly this genetic transfer happens is still a mystery. It Might be viruses, or parasites, doing the DNA delivery. But whatever it callsthe cause, it suggests that the evolution of insects, on a molecular level at least, may be something more of share a shared success story.

  • Words worth to be remembered:
    • beetles: n. 甲壳虫;大槌 v. 用槌打;急忙来回,快速移动;突出;逼近,威胁
    • quadruples: adj. 四重的;四倍的 n. 四倍 v. (使)成四倍

譯文

你能感谢你的父母给你DNA.因为人类通过~youxing~ 有性繁殖分享基因,把基因从父母传到孩子。 这就是众所周知的DNA 的纵向传递。

现在想象一下如果你可以分享一两个你的DNA片段给一个无关的陌生人,就通过握手或者其它偶然的接触——并且这个陌生人就把你的DNA片段整合到它们的基因组里去了。无性的。也没有后代。这就是被称为DNA 的水平转移。人类是怎样做到的这件事还不很明确。 但是这确是细菌等单细胞有机物的主要遗传信息活动, 比如说利用这个过程分享它们各自的抵抗抗生素基因。

现在法国科学家已经发现水平DNA转移现象可能比我们认为的在多细胞有机物中存在的还要更常见,也包括——昆虫,在这种情况下。因为通过分析了195个昆虫的基因组,它们发现在没有亲缘关系的蝇类与蝴蝶、甲壳虫和黄蜂各物种之间出现的2200多个水平DNA转移现象。

总数上,是之前发现的在全部动物、植物和真菌之间出现的水平DNA转移现象数目的四倍。该研究已发表在《国家科学研究进展》杂志上。

这些遗传物质的转移是如何发现的至今人类还不十分清楚。或许是靠病毒或寄生物,进行的DNA传递。但是,无论是什么原因,这件事提示我们,昆虫的进化,至少在分子水平上,或许不只是已知公认的进化历史那么简单。

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