# 人性與戰爭

How soldiers deal with the job of killing

Ben says he wanted to kill, . But there are others who are very reluctant. In the Second World War, one of the combatants , S. L. A. Marshall observed that many didn’t shoot. He wrote a study , called Men Against Fire , in which he concluded that there was a reluctance to kill. There They were what were called non-firers. Fear of killing rather than fear of being killed was, he said, was the most common cause of battle failure. Marshall’s methods of research have since been questioned, but the broad conclusion is still accepted by many. : soldiers often simply won’t fire. The referent Reverend Dr Giles Fraser’s phrases are Fraser lectures on morality and ethics at the academy of the British Ministry of Defense.

I think there is there’s a deep human reluctance to kill other people. S. L. A. Marshall found that only 15 % to 20% of combatants in history combat infantry were able to fire their weapons on the enemy. And there were 80%, there 80% that were defects or can’t change subjects de facto conscientious objectors when they come it came to the point to fire of firing their own weapon. And this I’d say it is extraordinary. At Gettysburg, this is another extraordinary story. There were 27,000 rifles, muskets , left on the field of battle . and 90% of them were loaded. And actually , it was it’s because people were not firing their weapons.

• Words worth to be remembered:
• Reverend: adj. （对牧师的尊称，前面与the连用）尊敬的
• combatant: n. 争斗者,战斗员
• infantry: n. 步兵；步兵团
• de facto: （法）实际上的
• conscientious:adj. 认真的；尽责的；本着良心的；小心谨慎的
• objector: n. 反对者；提出异议的人
• musket: n. 步枪；滑膛枪，毛瑟枪

## 譯文

Ben说他曾经想要杀戮。但也有一些人是被逼无奈才这么做的。二战期间，作为参战人员的S.L.A. Marshall观察到当时很多人都没有开枪。他做了一个名叫《反对战火的人》的研究，在这份报告里他得出的结论是人们不愿意杀戮。这些人叫做不开枪的人。Marshall说害怕杀戮而非害怕被杀其实是战斗失败的最常见的原因。Marshall研究的方法虽然一直遭到质疑，但是他得出的大结论还是被广泛接受，那就是士兵一般不愿开枪。Giles Frasers博士在英国国防部学院做了以道德为主题的演讲。

“我认为人类自内心深处就对杀戮有排斥。S.L.A. Marshall发现战斗步兵队伍中，只有15%到20%的人能够朝敌人开枪。而80%的人在面临开枪那一刻实际上是会产生抵触情绪而不愿意这么做的。我认为这个发现很特别。葛底斯堡的战役也很特别。当时有27000把来复枪和步枪散落在战场上，其中90%的枪都上了膛。实际上这是因为没有人开枪。”

##### Chaochen Wang 王　超辰
###### Assistant Professor

All models are wrong, but some are useful.