Treatment patterns in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma post covalent Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment: a Japanese claims database study

Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology


Standard treatment has not been established for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) after discontinuation of covalent Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor (cBTKi) therapy. This retrospective, administrative database (Medical Data Vision) study described the patient characteristics, treatment patterns, and factors associated with receiving post-first-cBTKi treatment in Japanese patients with CLL/SLL. Patients aged ≥18 years with confirmed CLL/SLL diagnosis and treated with anti-neoplastic drugs indicated for CLL/SLL between March 2013 and February 2022 were included. Patient characteristics at baseline (first line), first cBTKi exposure (first-cBTKi), post-first-cBTKi treatment received, and the treatment sequence of CLL drugs received first line through third line, were described. Time-to-event analyses used the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors associated with receiving post-first-cBTKi treatment among patients who discontinued first-cBTKi treatment. Among 2,424 eligible patients (median age: 72.0 years, 61.9% male), 450 (18.6%) received cBTKi in any treatment line. Among patients treated with cBTKi, 273 (60.7%) discontinued treatment; 56.0% of them (n = 153/273) received subsequent treatment. Median duration of post-first-cBTKi treatment was 2.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8, 3.5). The most common regimens post-first-cBTKi were cBTKi therapy (47.7%), bendamustine-based therapy (17.0%), and venetoclax-based therapy (13.1%). Patients aged <75 years (odds ratio [OR] [95% CI]: 2.0 [1.2, 3.4]) and those who did not receive blood transfusion during cBTKi treatment (OR [95% CI]: 2.3 [1.3, 4.1]) were more likely to receive post-first-cBTKi treatment. In conclusion, Japanese patients with CLL/SLL received various treatments for short duration after first-cBTKi discontinuation.

Keywords: cBTKi; chronic lymphocytic leukemia; small lymphocytic lymphoma; time to treatment discontinuation; treatment patterns.

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