第 97 章 Crude and stratified rate ratios

本章內容不討論任何理論的東西,着重強調用 R 進行實際數據的分析,並加強對輸出結果的理解。

此次實戰演練的目的是學會怎樣計算死亡率比 (Rate Ratios, RR)。學會用 Mantel-Haenszel 法總結 RR,並討論其意義。

## Time difference of 7078.9927 days
##     Min.  1st Qu.   Median     Mean  3rd Qu.     Max. 
##  0.15063 17.16357 17.96020 16.46116 18.56262 19.38123
## agecat
## [40,45) [45,50) [50,55) [55,60) [60,65) [65,70) 
##     277     445     362     340     215      38
##                   exp(Est.)          2.5%         97.5%
## (Intercept)    0.0048794197  0.0032705278  0.0072797841
## agecat[45,50)  1.1740971320  0.7154062934  1.9268827913
## agecat[50,55)  2.7732622719  1.7597191900  4.3705743919
## agecat[55,60)  4.5784055712  2.9519678778  7.1009572062
## agecat[60,65)  6.6882727538  4.2856745766 10.4377949444
## agecat[65,70) 17.1110624279 10.1140257533 28.9487553770
##                  exp(Est.)         2.5%       97.5%
## (Intercept)    0.010865404 0.0095233128 0.012396632
## factor(grade)2 2.305446287 1.8947528380 2.805158793
## , , Agecat = [40,45)
## 
##      
## Grade death Person_years
##     2     4     693.1284
##     1    20    4225.4893
## 
## , , Agecat = [45,50)
## 
##      
## Grade death Person_years
##     2    10     1363.821
##     1    35     6491.072
## 
## , , Agecat = [50,55)
## 
##      
## Grade death Person_years
##     2    30      1399.63
##     1    52      4660.12
## 
## , , Agecat = [55,60)
## 
##      
## Grade death Person_years
##     2    51     1832.169
##     1    67     3449.846
## 
## , , Agecat = [60,65)
## 
##      
## Grade death Person_years
##     2    59     1660.597
##     1    42     1434.251
## 
## , , Agecat = [65,70)
## 
##      
## Grade death Person_years
##     2    28    316.23840
##     1     5     79.00879
##              Outcome +    Time at risk        Inc rate *
## Exposed +          182            7266              25.0
## Exposed -          221           20340              10.9
## Total              403           27605              14.6
## 
## Point estimates and 95% CIs:
## -------------------------------------------------------------------
## Inc rate ratio (crude)                       2.31 (1.88, 2.82)
## Inc rate ratio (M-H)                         1.43 (1.16, 1.76)
## Inc rate ratio (crude:M-H)                   1.61
## Attrib rate (crude) *                        14.18 (10.27, 18.10)
## Attrib rate (M-H) *                          6.28 (2.42, 10.15)
## Attrib rate (crude:M-H)                      2.26
## -------------------------------------------------------------------
##  Wald confidence limits
##  M-H: Mantel-Haenszel; CI: confidence interval
##  * Outcomes per 1000 units of population time at risk
##        est     lower     upper
## 1 1.429211 1.1598631 1.7611078
##   test.statistic df       p.value
## 1      11.132745  5 0.00084816981
##         est      lower     upper
## 1 1.2192515 0.30302945 3.6397113
## 2 1.3598500 0.60057144 2.8059055
## 3 1.9208868 1.18309546 3.0676307
## 4 1.4332751 0.97576189 2.0941999
## 5 1.2132872 0.80308583 1.8474726
## 6 1.3991002 0.53338106 4.6404658
## NULL